Discovering Lewis & Clark®

is dedicated to the memory of Arlen J. Large, Don Nell,
Martin Plamondon II, and Dr. V. Strode Hinds,
who were among the first to encourage and assist us.

The Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation

David Borlaug, President

Founding Producer and Editor, 1998-2009
Assistant Editor, 2009–2015

Joseph A. Mussulman

Honorary Senior Editor

Gary E. Moulton, University of Nebraska

Interpretive Content Editor


Technical Editor/Programmer

Kris Townsend

Original Artist-Designer

Keith Phillips
The Phillips Design House

Original Designers and Programmers

Wally Bivins, Mark Hendricks

Participating Authors

A brief biographical sketch, with photo, is linked from the author's name on his or her
article's menu page, or beneath the title of a single-page article.

John L. Allen, (Geographer), David Alt (Geologist), Stephen Ambrose, (Historian), Mark Behan (Botanist), Robert Bergantino (Geologist), William Bevis (Watercraft Historian), Michael Carrick (Firearms Historian), Doug Erickson (Archivist, historian), Barbara Fifer (Freelance Author), Dan Flores (Historian), Harry W. Fritz (Historian), Charles Greifenstein (Biographer), Otis Halfmoon (Nez Perce Indian Historian), James Holmberg (Historian), Charles Jonkel (Wildlife Biologist), Adam Lewis (Journalist-Natural History), Castle McLaughlin (Anthropologist), Mary Malloy (Historian), Robert Moore, (NPS, Historian), Frank Muhly, (Historian), Pierce Mullen (Historian), Jack Nisbet (Historian), David Peck, D.O. (Physician), C. F. Reed (Historian), James L. Reveal (Botanist), Daniel Slosberg (Musician), Earle Spamer (Botanist), Ron Therriault (Salish Indian Historian), Greg Tollefson (Journalist-Natural History)Stephen Witte (Historian), Richard McCourt (Botanist), Phil Condon (Author), Rick Newby (Author), Steve F. Russell (Trail Historian), John C. Van Horne (Historian), Sarah Walker (Naturalist).


Stephen F. Arno, Robert Bergantino, Gail Chehak, Stuart Knapp, Richard Kodeski, Mary Horstman, Marilyn Hudson, Hank Mathaison, Richard McCourt, Rod McIver, Robert Moore, Frank Muhly, James Reveal, Stan Underwood, Roger Wendlick

Research Institutions

Academy of Natural Sciences; American Philosophical Society—Richard Shrake, Assistant Librarian—Valerie-Ann Lutz, Manuscripts Librarian and Registrar; Atwater-Kent Museum, Philadelphia—Susan G. Drinan, Registrar; Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University; California State Library; Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology; Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia—Andrea Ashby Leraris, Library Technician; Library Company of Philadelphia; Missouri Historical Society—Duane Sneddeker, Photo Archivist; New Jersey Historical Society—Timothy L. Decker, Collections Manager; Oregon History Center; Montana Historical Society—Rich Aarstad, Archivist—David Walter, Historian—Lory Morrow, Photo Archives Supervisor—Brian Shovers, Reference Historian; North Dakota Heritage Center; Smithsonian Institution, National Portrait Gallery—Lizanne Garrett, Rights & Reproductions Coordinator; South Dakota Historical Society; Western Heritage Center; Watzek Library of Lewis and Clark College, Portland Oregon—Doug Erickson, Special Collections and Archives—Jeremy Skinner, Assistant Archivist—Paul Merchant—Roger Wendlick, Collector in Residence. We are especially indebted to the staff of the Mansfield Library at the University of Montana for their generous cooperation and assistance.

Contemporary Artists

Dana Boussard, Mari Bolen, Eugene Daub, Monte Dolack, Nancy Erickson, Bob Gilman, Michael Haynes, Walter Hook, Pat Mathieson, Robert Scriver, Michael Westergard

Contemporary Photographers

J. Agee; Randy Beacham, Randy Beacham Photography; Mark Behan, Rick Graetz; Dean Hellinger; Harley Hettick; Steve Lee; Larry Mayer; Allan McMakin; David Muench; Jean-Erick Pasquier; Jim Peterson; Wayne Peterson; Brent Phelps; W. Steve Sherman, Lone Wolf Photography; Jack Taylor; Kurt Wilson; Rohn Wood; Jim Wark, Airphoto; Jim Wylder.

Dialect Guidance

Synopsis only:
Dictionary of American Regional English, University of Wisconsin, Madison


Robert Ledbette

Recording Engineers

Richard H. Kuschel, The Recording Center


Montana Committee for the Humanities Montana Cultural Trust
Lee Enterprises
Oregon Council for the Humanities
National Park Service, Challenge Cost-Share Program
Lewis & Clark Fort Mandan Foundation