Summary of the Nomenclature

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Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco—Douglas-fir

Pinus taxifolia Lamb., Descr. Genus Pinus 1:53, pl. 33. 1803, non P. taxifolia Salisb. (Prodr.: 399. 1796). Abies taxifolia Poir. in Lam., Encycl. Méth. Bot. 6:523. 1805, non A. taxifolia Desf. (Tabl. Ecole Bot.: 206. 1804). Abies menziesii Mirb., Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 13: 63, 70. 1825. Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Lamb.) Britt., Trans. New York Acad. Sci. 8: 74. 1889. Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) Britt. ex Sudw., U.S.D.A. Div. Forestry Bull. 14: 46. 1897. Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Bol. Soc. Brot., ser. 2, 24: 74. 1950. (Menzies s.n., Vancouver Isl., 1791; specimen at The Natural History Museum, London).

Pinus douglasii Sabine ex D. Don in Lamb., Descr. Genus Pinus, ed. 3, 2: unnumbered page between 144 and 145. 1832. Abies douglasii (Sabine ex D. Don) Lindl., Penny Cyclop. 1: 32. 1833. Pseudotsuga douglasii (Sabine ex D. Don) Carr, Trait. Conif., ed. 2: 256. 1867. (Douglas s.n., Willamette River, Oregon, Oct 1830; specimen at the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew England).

Abies mucronata Raf., Atl. J. 1: 120. 1832. Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf.) Sudw. in Holz, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 3: 266. 1895. (Lewis 5, near the mouth of the Columbia River, Clatsop Co., Oregon, 6 Feb 1806; described from Lewis' notes - specimen unknown).

For illustrations of Douglas-fir see the first volume of "Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest" by Hitchcock and his associates, and the second volume of Flora of North America north of Mexico.


Boewe, C. 1982. Rafinesque: A sketch of his life with bibliography by T. J. Fitzpatrick, revised by Charles Boewe. M & S Press, Weston, Massachusetts.

Carriére, E. A. 1867. Traité général des coniféres. Ed. 2. Published by the author, Paris.

Coats, A. M. 1970. The plant hunters: Being a history of the horticultural pioneers, their quests and their discoveries from the Renaissance to the twentieth century. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Douglas, D. 1914. Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in North America, 1823-1827. Royal Horticultural Society, London.

Ewan, J. 1952. "Frederick Pursh, 1774-1820, and his botanical associates." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 96: 599-628.

Ewan, J. 1979. "Introduction to the facsimile reprint of Frederick Pursh' Flora americae septentrionalis (1814)," p. 7-117. In: F.T. Pursh, Flora americae septentrionalis. Facsimile reprint. J. Cramer, Vaduz.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). 1993. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Oxford University Press, New York.

Franco, J. A. F. 1950. Cedrus libanensis et Pseudotsuga menziesii. Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, sér. 2, 24: 73-76.

Gascoigne, J. 1998. Science in the service of Empire: Joseph Banks, the British State and the uses of science in the age of revolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Goetzmann, W. J. 1966. Exploration and empire. W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., New York.

Hitchcock, C. L., A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey & J. W. Thompson. 1969. "Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest." University of Washington Publication of Biology 17(1).

Hooker, W. J. 1836-1837. "A brief memoir of the life of Mr. David Douglas, with extracts from his letters." Companion to the Botanical Magazine 2: 79-182 [in four parts].

Isley, D. 1994. One hundred and one botanists. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

Kastner, J. 1977. A species of eternity. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Little, E. L. 1941. "Notes on nomenclature in Pinaceae." American Journal of Botany 31: 587-596.

Little, E. L. 1952. "The genus Pseudotsuga (Douglas-fir) in North America." Leaflets of Western Botany 6: 181-198.

Little, E. L. 1953. "Check list of native and naturalized trees of the United States" (including Alaska). United States Department of Agriculture Handbook 41.

Little, E. L. 1979. "Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized)." United States Department of Agriculture Handbook 541.

Lyte, C. 1980. Sir Joseph Banks. David & Charles, London.

Mirbel, F. B. 1825. "Essai sur la distribution gèographique des conifères." Mèmorie du Musèum d'Histoire Naturelle 13: 28-76.

Morwood, W. 1973. Traveler in a vanished landscape. The life & times of David Douglas, botanical explorer. Clarkson N. Potter Inc., Publisher. New York.

Moulton, G. E. (ed.). 1990. The journals of the Lewis & Clark expedition. The herbarium of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Volume 6. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.

Pursh, F. T. 1813. Flora americae septentrionalis. 2 vols. White, Cochrane, and Co., London.

Rafinesque, C. S. 1832. "Six new firs of Oregon." Atlantic Journal 1: 119-120.

Reveal, J.L. 1968. "On the names in Fraser's 1813 catalogue." Rhodora 70: 25-54.

Reveal, J. L. 1992. Gentle conquest. The botanical discovery of North America with illustrations from the Library of Congress. Starwood Publishing, Washington, D.C.

Reveal, J. L. & J. S. Pringle. 1993. "Taxonomic botany and floristics," pp. 157-192. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 1. Oxford University Press, New York. See for an online version.

Sargent, C. S. 1890-1902. The North American sylva. 14 vols. D. Appleton & Co., New York.

Spongberg, S. A. 1990. A reunion of trees. The discovery of exotic plants and their introduction into North American and European landscapes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Stearn, W. T. 1981. The Natural History Museum at South Kensington. A history of the British Museum (Natural History), 1753-1980. Heinemann, London.

Sterling, K. B. 1978. Rafinesque, autobiography and lives. Arno Press, New York.

Sudworth, G. B. 1897. Nomenclature of the arborescent flora of the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Sudworth, G. B. 1898. Check list of the forest trees of the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Sudworth, G. B. 1927. Check list of the forest trees of the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.