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Table of Contents
Home

The Expedition

      Hat Rock
      Synopsis
           Washington City to Fort Mandan
           Fort Mandan to Marias River
           Marias River to Lemhi Pass
           Lemhi Pass to Fort Clatsop
           Fort Clatsop to St. Louis
      Rocky Mountain Gates
           Grasping the Northern Rockies
           First Gate Through the Rockies
           Gates of the Mountains
           Little Gates of the Mountains
           Third Mountain Gap
           Last Gates
      Discovering Lewis & Clark from the Air
           Photographer's Preface
           1. Monticello
           2. Harpers Ferry
           3. Pittsburgh
           4. Lawrenceville, West Virginia
           5. Brown's Island, Weirton West Virginia
           6. Wheeling, West Virginia
           7. Cincinnati
           8. Louisville
           9. The Wabash joins the Ohio
           10. The Ohio meets the Mississippi
           11. Mississippi River above Cairo, Illinois
           12. Grand Tower near Cape Girardeau
           13. Western Gate: St. Louis
           14. The Missouri meets the Mississippi
           15. St. Charles, Missouri
           16. Charrette Creek opposite Washington, Missouri
           17. Osage River
           18. Jefferson City on the Missouri
           19. Arrow Rock, Missouri
           20. Drift, near Arrow Rock, Missouri
           21. Malta Bend, in Missouri
           22. Confluence, Kansas & Missouri Rivers
           23. St. Joseph, Missouri
           24. Rulo, Nebraska
           25. Confluence - Platte and Missouri
           26. Omaha, NE and Council Bluffs, IA
           27. Tornado Damage near Logan, IA
           28. North of Little Sioux, Iowa
           29. Blue Lake, Onawa, IA
           30. Sioux City, Iowa
           31. Elk Point, South Dakota
           32. Spirit Mound near Vermillion, SD
           33. Yankton, South Dakota
           34. Sandbars near Springfield, SD
           35. Niobrara River meets the Missouri
           36. Fort Randall Dam
           37. The Big Bend of the Missouri
           38. Pierre, South Dakota
           39. Oahe Dam
           40. Fort Yates, North Dakota...
           41. Bismarck-Mandan, North Dakota
           42. Knife River Village Site
           43. Fort Mandan
           44. Strip Mine, Falkirk, ND
           45. Confluence of the Yellowstone & Missouri
           46. Fort Union
           47. Oil Well near Culbertson, MT
           48. Milky Blend
           49. Spillway, Fort Peck Dam
           50. Fort Peck Lake
           51. Fort Peck Lake
           52. C.M. Russell NWR
           53. Deserts of America
           54. White Cliffs
           55. Citadel Rock
           56. Great Wall
           57. Decision Point
           58. Narrow Escape
           59. Tremendous Cataract
           60. Crooked Falls
           61. Rainbow Falls
           62. Sun River joins the Missouri
           63. Lower Portage Camp
           64. Oxbow Bend
           65. Gates of the Mountains
           66. Headwaters of the Missouri
           67. Jefferson River at Cardwell, MT
           68. Tobacco Root Mountains
           69. Beaverhead Rock
           70. Clark Canyon Dam
           71. Lemhi Pass
           72. Upper Lemhi Valley
           73. Salmon River near Shoup, ID
           74. Lost Trail Pass
           75. Travelers Rest
           76. Bitterroot Mountains near Lolo Pass
           77. Weippe Prairie
           78. Canoe Camp on the Clearwater
           79. Clearwater River Near Spalding, Idaho
           80. The Clearwater Meets the Snake
           81. The Snake River at the Tucannon
           82. Snake River near the Palouse River
           83.Confluence, Snake and Columbia Rivers
           84. Columbia River near Blalock, Oregon
           85. Miller Island near The Dalles
           86. The Dalles, Oregon
           87. Bonneville Dam & Mount Adams
           88. Beacon Rock
           89. Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge
           90. North Cascades at Dawn
           91. Lower Estuary of the Columbia
           92. Grays Bay
           93. Point Ellice
           94. Cape Disappointment
           95. Long Beach
           96. Lewis and Clark River
           97. Seaside, Oregon
           98. Tillamook Head
           99. Cannon Beach, Oregon
           100. Portland, Oregon
           101. Salmon River Fishing Trip
           102. Bend of the Yellowstone
           103. Yellowstone Canoe Camp
           104. Pryor Creek
           105. Bridge on the Yellowstone
           106. Pompeys Pillar
           107. Montana Badlands
           108. Knobby Prairie
           109. Lewis and Clark Pass
           110. Camp Disappointment
           111. Fight on the Two Med
      Philadelphia Connections
           Lewis in Philadelphia
                Tides of Nationhood
                Lewis Arrives
                Five Mentors
                Recovery from Crisis
                Central Roles
                William Birch's Philadelphia
           Lewis's Friends and Mentors
                Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815)
                Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844)
                Mahlon Dickerson (1770-1853)
                Andrew Ellicott (1754-1820)
                George Logan (1753-1821)
                Thomas McKean (1734-1817)
                Robert Patterson (1743-1824)
                Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827)
                Frederick Pursh (1774-1820)
                Benjamin Rush (1746-1820)
                Caspar Wistar (1761-1818)
           Historic Places
                Academy of Natural Sciences
                Center Square Pump House
                Christ Church
                City Tavern
                College of Physicians
                Man Full of Trouble Tavern
                Elfreth's Alley
                First Bank
                New Market
                State House (Independence Hall)
                Blanchard's Balloon
                Washington Square
                Pennsylvania Hospital
                St. Peter's Episcopal Church
                The Woodlands
           Du Pratz, History of Louisiana
                Memoir of a French Visitor
                Louisiana in 1757
                Model for Lewis
                Full View and Detail - du Pratz's Map
           Astronomy Notebook
                Editor's Foreword
                Confidential
                Patterson's Reply
                Problem 1st
                Problem 2nd
                Problem 3rd
                Problem 4th
                Problem 5th
                Lewis's Notes
                Hassler's Dilemmas
                Biddle's Opinions
                Challenges for Hassler
                Persistent Hope
           Benjamin Rush, M.D.
                Early Life and Education
                Building a Practice; Reformer Rush
                Rush, the Politician
                Rush and the APS
                18th Century Medical Theory
                Medicine of Benjamin Rush
                Rush, Jefferson and Medicine
                Rush and the Corps of Discovery
                Conclusion
                Rush's Writings for the APS
                Appendix One
                Appendix Two
           Lewis's Medicines
                Lewis's List
                Interactive Index
                Botanicals
                Rush's Bilious Pills
                Chemical Drugs
                Non-Drug Items
           Useful Knowledge in the New Republic - C.W. Peale
                Charles Willson Peale - Beginnings
                Peale in London
                Peale the Soldier
                Post-Revolutionary Peale
                Founding the Museum
                Building the Museum
                Lewis and Clark in the Museum
                Peale the Farmer; Last Works
           Paleontology
                Imagining the Beast
                Jefferson's Megalonyx
                No Extinction?
                Living Fossils!
                Lewis - Student Paleontologist
                Peale's Mammoth Picture
                Pleistocene Boneyard
                Rocks and Fossils
                Missing Fossils
                Georges Buffon
                Georges Cuvier
                Richard Harlan
      Ohio River
           Late Start
           Shallow Water
           At the Falls of the Ohio
           The Partnership Begins
           To the Mississippi
      Missouri River Scenes
           Tywappity Bottom
           The Big Muddy Joins the Mighty Miss
           Mouth of the Missouri
           Haynes, Moreau River
           Haynes, Ordway's Mishap
           The Osage Joins the Missouri
           Kansas Cities on the Kaw
           Hair-raising Hazards
           Manholes on the Mo
           Cornfed River
           MRC Map of the Big Bend (1880s)
           Holdout
           The Missouri River - Habits and Eccentricities
           The Mouth of the Yellowstone River
           Judith River
           Fort Mountain - Square Butte
           Landmark - The Bear's Tooth
           Scenes from the Centennial
           Beaverhead Rock - Aerial View
           Milk River
                The Missouri and the Milk
                Encouraging Words
                Milk River and Panther Mountain
                Milk River near the Bear's Paw
           Missouri Headwaters
                Essential Point, 1805
                Gallatin City, 1863-65
      Marias River
           Clark's Map, Marias & Missouri
           Marias River - First Glance
           Very Considerable River
           Bad Land
           Mouth of the Teton River
           A Handsome Little River
           A Noble River
           Wild Rose
           What's in a Name?
           Wild Rose Hips
           View from the Heights
           A most inchanting view
           Mountains, Montana & Idaho
           One Day from Freedom
           A Handsome Situation
           Gold of Ophir
           Lower Marias Aerial
           Liquid Gold
           Loma, Montana
           Flood on the Lower Marias, 1948
           Tiber Dam
           Tiber Dam Today
           Water Intake
           War Monument
           My Lai on the Marias
           Deep Monument
           Soft Gold - Fur
           Beaver Plew
           Hard Gold - Wheat
           Squaring the Golden Triangle
           Triangle Map
           Always The Wind
           Black Gold - Oil
           Pump-Jacks
           Tower Mountain
           Hidden Gold
           Overlooked Opportunities
           Dinosaur Fossils
           Camp Disappointment
           Drouillard's Route
           Where in the World
           Old Bones
      Great Falls and Portage
           Crooked Falls
           Rapids
           Colter Falls
           Giant Springs
           The Falls and Portage
           Route Survey
           Sulfur Spring - Closeups
           Measuring the Falls
                Clark's Sketch - The Portage
                Clark's Map of the Falls
                John Evans's Map (detail)
                How High the Falls?
                Measuring the Falls of the Missouri
                Heights and Distances
                Why?
           The Grand Fall
                Grand Fall - Main Menu
                Clark's Measurements
                Great Falls - Barralet's Drawing
                Niagara Falls - Fr. Louis Hennepin
                Niagara Falls - Bodmer
                Sohon's Lithograph
                Exceptional Perspective
                Stereo Photo
                From the Verge of the Canyon
                Centennial View - Olin D. Wheeler
                Very high tide
           Handsome Falls
                Handsom Falls - Clark's Sketch
                Mathews' Second Principle Fall
                Handsom Falls - First Photo
                Rainbow Falls
                Handsom Falls - Menu
           Black Eagle Falls
                Black Eagle Falls - Clark's Sketch Map
                Black Eagle Falls and Dam - Aerial
           Sulfur Spring
                Secrets of Sulfur Spring
                Miracle of Sulfur Spring
                Facts about Sulfur Spring
                Something in the Water
                Phycology
                Adding It Up
                Something (More) in the Water
           Meadow Larks
                Western Meadowlark - A Western Greeting
                Eastern Meadowlark - Eastern Shout
                Tell-tale Tails
                Hand to Mouth
           Sun or Medicine River
      Fortunate Camp
           Clark's Map
           River's End
           Promises to keep
           Lewis's Birthday Meditation
           Site of Camp Fortunate
           Hidden History
           Lewis's Shoshone Tippet
           Three Roots
           Jerusalem Artichoke
           Common Snowberry
           Western Spring Beauty - Claytonia lanceolata
           Westslope Cutthroat
           Long-Tailed Weasel
           Sage Grouse - Centrocercus urophasianus
                Sage Grouse
                Sage Grouse on the Brink
                Sage Grouse - Descriptions
           Where Was Fortunate Camp?
                Clark's Latitude
                Observing Latitude
                Results
                Longitude at Fortunate Camp
      On Jefferson's River
           Gate of Gold
           Snow in the Tobacco Roots
           The Rock She Meant
           Landmark for Clark
           Gold Strike on Willard's Creek
           Janey's Old Neighborhood
      Idaho: Lewis's River
           Key Map, Lewis's River Valleys
           A Gap in a Dividing Ridge
           A Great Height
           A Redrock Stagecoach near Lemhi Pass
           Trails to Pattee Creek
           Withington Creek Camp
           Two Villages on the Lemhi
           Ceremony of the Pipe
           Fish Weirs
           Sammon Run
           Big Flat
           Geology Lesson
           Inside Kirwan's Mineralogy
           Tower Creek Skyline
           River of No Return
           North Fork of the Salmon River
           Horse Packing
           Ropewalk
           Shoshone Caparison
           On the Bitterroot Divide
           Clark's Map -- Lemhi Pass to Salmon River
           Map - Carmen Creek to North Fork
           Map - North Fork to Lost Trail Pass
      Lolo Stories
           Place-Names
           Recollection
           Thompson's & Ashley's Lolos
           John Work; Father De Smet
           John Mullan's Lolo
           Putting Lolo on the Map
           Major Owen's Lolos
           St. Mary's Rediviva
           Old-Timers
           Endless Possibilities
           Lolos in the GNIS
           Lolo in Trade Jargon
           One Corporeal Lolo
           A Worthwhile Study
      Bitterroot Barrier: K'useyneiskit
           Clark's Maps of K'useyneiskit
                1. Packer Meadows to Wendover Ridge
                2. Snowbank Camp to Indian Post Office
                3. Sinque Hole Camp to Dry Camp
                4. Hungry Camp to Full Stomach Camp
                5. Lewis & Clark Grove to Weippe Prairie
                Coyote
                Thomas Say, Canis latrans
                6. From Weippe Prairie to Canoe Camp
                7. Camp Chopunnish to Salmon River
                Ordway's Camp, May 27, 1806
                Deer Creek, May 28, 1806
                Fishery on the Snake, May 29, 1806
                South Fork of the Clearwater River
           Finding K'useyneiskit
                Ancient Travelers
                Horse Road
                Trails to Rails
                Motor Way
           Celestial Observations at Clearwater Canoe Camp
                Fortunate Camp to Clearwater Canoe Camp
                Latitude by Meridian Altitude
                Latitude by Hour Angle
                Checking the Chronometer
                Observations for Magnetic Declination
                Longitude - The Captains' Observations
                Longitude by Lunar Distance
                Longitude by Patterson's Formula
           Celestial Observations at Camp Chopunnish
                Springtime Respite
                Observations at Long Camp
                Calculations of Observations
                Magnetic Declination - Camp Chopunnish
                Lunar Distances
                Testing Patterson's Formula
           The Rocks they Walked On
                Getting to Know Rocks
                Gray Granite
                Pink Granite
                Basalt Floods & Dust Dunes
           Life Along K'useyneiskit
                Sheep in the Bitterroots
                Camas -- Invisible Gardening
                Who Loves Fire?
                Weeds: Which Ones Should We Worry About?
                Forests Created by Fire
                Where's the Elk?
                K'useyneiskit's Hidden Winter World
           Lewis as Botanist
           Camassia quamash
                1. Over Lewis's Shoulder
                2. Radix with Radicles
                3. Foliage
                4. Peduncle and Pedicel
                5. Calyx
                6. Corolla
                7. Stamens, Filaments and Anthers
                8. Pistil, Stigma, Style, Pericarp
                9. Baking Camas
           Landsat over Lolo Pass
                New Views of the Hoop
                Comparisons - Understanding Change
                Vicinity of Lolo Pass
      Through the Columbia Gorge
           Columbia Gorge as Division Point
           Native Life in the Columbia Gorge
           Wishrams and the Expedition
           Westward Through the Gorge
           Clark's Chart, Great Falls of the Columbia
           Back Through the Gorge, 1806
      Beacon Rock
           Remarkable Rock
           George Vancouver's Map of the Lower Columbia
           Miscommunication
           Castle Rock
           Beautiful Cascades
      Station Camp
           Ocean in View
           Extent of our Journey
           Chainsaw Sculpture at Station Camp
           Mountains of Waves
           Arrival at the Pacific Ocean
           Wanless Sculpture at Long Beach. Detail
      At the Pacific Ocean
           Very Remarkable Point
           Tremendious Day
           Salt Camp
                Saltworks Re-enactment
                Alchemists' Symbols for Salt
                Sweat of the Earth
                Trail to Salt Camp
                Salt of the Blood
                Saltmakers' Oven, 1899
                A Peck of Thimbles
                Commemorative Plaque at the Salt Works
                A Singular Thirst
                Fast Food
                Worthy of Notice
                Salt Cairn Memorial
                Salt's Works
                Report to Congress
                Worth Their Salt
                Salt of the Earth
                Cum Grano Salis
      Fort Clatsop
           Rush Job
           Neighborly Gift
           Interior of a Chinook House
           Stick Game
           Chinook Indian Dogs
           The Wilkes Expedition
           Comcomly's Tomb
           A Thread of History
           Fort Clatsop Site, 1900
           Differences
           The Way It Was
           Lewis & Clark River
           Great River of the West
           Columbia Rediviva
           Flintlock Rifle - Harpers Ferry
                Model 1803
                Load & Fire
                Twelve Steps to Dinner
                Inside Story
                Blow Up!
           Tour the Fort
                Entrance to Parade Ground
                     Entrance to the Parade Ground
                     First Squad: Pryor
                The Parade Ground
                     Third Squad: Ordway
                     Second Squad: Gass
                     Sentinel's Box
                     Water Gate
                     Roosevelt Elk
                     Roosevelt Elk Relationships
                     Roosevelt Elk Crowning Glory
                Orderly Room
                     Detachment Orders, continued
                     Kettles
                     Meat Room
                Captains' Quarters
                     Mountain Beaver
                     Clark's Desk
                     Map of the Lower Columbia
                     Map of Tillamook Head
                     Map from Clatsop Information
                     Berberis aquifolium Pursh
                     A Closer Look
                     Oregon Grape - Barbary Berry
                Captains' Quarters Center
                     Clatsop Hats of a Conic Figure
                     Coastal Indian Cradleboard
                     Bearberry
                     Bearberry - Double Talk
                     Bearberry - Lewis's Description
                     Bearberry Specimen
                     Beargrass
                     Lewis's Desk
                          Elkskin Journal
                          Lewis and his Specimen Press
                          Specimen Press
                          Big Trees
                          Douglas-fir - Perspectives
                          Alias Douglas-fir
                          Grand Fir
                     Captains' Table
                          Most Remarkable Trait
                          Classic Profile
                          Tides of Fashion
                          An Indian Commission
                          Critical Shortages
                          Hooked!
                          Indian Tobacco
                          Corolla and Calyx
                          Trade Beads
                          Portable Inkwell
                          Eulachon
                               Eulachon
                               A 'Lussious' Fish
                               Eulachon gill and tailfin
                               Eulachon - A Family Affair
                               Eulogy for Eulachon? Part 1
                               Eulogy for Eulachon? Part 2
                               Eulogy for Eulachon? Part 3
      Travelers' Rest to Lolo Pass
           Preface - Dividing Forces
           Hot Springs
           Natural Attraction
           Another Brush with Death
           Anderson Gulch - Grave Creek
           Hub of the West
           Tum-sum-lech - No Salmon!
           Paxson Murals
                Edgar Paxson, Western Artist
                Paxson, Travelers' Rest, 1805
                Detail: Friendly Discourse
                Paxson, Lewis Crosses Clark's River
      Road to the Buffalo
           Lewis's Shortcut Mapped - 1
           July 3, Two Rivers
           July 4, Hell's Gate
           July 4, Confluence
           July 4, Cokahlah ishkit
           Small Grey Squirrel
           July 5, Seaman's Creek
           Seaman's Fate
           Aspen: A Touch of Color - 1
           Aspen: A Touch of Color - 2
           July 6, Beautiful Plain
           Moose - Alces alces
           July 7, Lander's Fork
           July 7, Alice Creek
           July 7, Continental Divide
           Lewis's Shortcut Mapped - 2
           July 7, Rocky Mountain Front
           July 8, Dearborn's River
           July 8, Haystack Butte
           July 8, Mah-pah-pah ah-zhah
           July 9 - Sun River & Battle Hills
           July 10, Fort Mountain
           July 11-15, Back to the Falls
      Yellowstone River Return
           Nathaniel Pryor's Mission
           Yellowstone River
                Frontier Experience
                Last River
                Captain Clark Reaches the Roche Jaune
                Captain Lewis Sighting the Yellowstone
                Nicholas King Map (1803), Detail
                A Chapter of Accidents
                Clark's Projections, 1805
                Easy Mark
                Colstrip, Montana
                Indian Fort
                Mathews, Exit of the Yellowstone
                The Yellowstone at the Clark's Fork
                Warren's Lower Yellowstone
                Mouth of the Yellowstone
                Clark on the Yellowstone
                Clark's Conclusions, 1814
                USGS Map, Big Bend of the Yellowstone
                Indian Information
                Riverine Superhighway
                Grande Dame of the Yellowstone
                Gritty Names
                Shoals Reconsidered
                Paradigm Shift
                Fairest Portion
           Nathaniel Pryor's Mission
                Portents
                Questions for Consideration
                Bold Plan
                Tactical Plan, July 3-August 12, 1806
                Key Figure
                Bull Boats
                Pryor's First Mission
                Fording Place, Billings, Montana
                War Path of the Gros Ventres
                Pickpockets!
                Crow Horse Culture
                Sheheke - Big White
                Sheheke's Wife, Yellow Corn
                Delegation to Washington
                Clark’s Speech to the Crow Indians
                Taking Sheheke Home
                Long-Suffering Shannon
                Lewis Takes Over
           Pompy's Tower
                Pompy's Tower: A Remarkable Rock
                A Most Extensive View
                The Pryor Mountains
                Crow Indian Name for the Tower
                Graffiti
                     Graffiti
                     Tagbanger!
                     Tagger
                     Lewis's Branding Iron
                     Memorials
                     Hitting Up and Going Over
                     Old School
                     Getting Up
                     Brothers
                     Preservers
                     Hailing Heroes
                     Medicine
           Francois Larocque
                Chance Meeting
                Mouse River Trail
                A Very Grand Plan
                Route to the Assiniboine River
                Friendly Visit
                Heartland of the High Plains
                Dangerous Assignment
                Larocque's Yellowstone Journey
                Abominable Country
                Middle Missouri to the Assiniboine River
                Sheheke's Map
           Coal in the Bank
                A Long Story
                1804: Clinker
                1805: Carbonated Wood
                Fort Union Formation
                1806: Last Look
                Pumies Stone
                Pumice - Specimen
                Side View, Fort Union Formation
                Strip-mining at Colstrip, Montana
                Building on Coal
                Coal Takes Over
                Mauve and More - Coal Tar
                The Real Cost of Coal
                Coal - From Now On
                Coal - Glossary
      Yellowstone Aerials
           Pompys Pillar from Above
           Where's Pompy?
           Badlands (Wark aerials)
           More Badlands (Wark aerials)
           The Pryors

 
American Nation
      Manuel Lisa's Fort Raymond
      A Gasconade
      Post-Expedition Fur Trade
      Big Changes in the Deserts
           The Deserts of America
           Indian Country
           Building A Ranch
      Early Flags of America
           Franklin's Cartoon
           The Expedition's Flags
           Flags of Allegiance
      Thompson, Lewis, Clark, Jefferson
           Parallel Journeys
           Two Rivers
           Encounters on the East Slope
           The Columbia District
           Maps and Mammoths
      Freeman-Custis Expedition
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 1
           Dan Flores
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 2
           Grand Excursio, Menu Page 3
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 4
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 5
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 6
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 7
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 8
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 9
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 10
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 11
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 12
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 13
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 14
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 15
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 16
           Grand Excursion, Menu Page 17
           In English
                The Grand Excursion (English)
                Real Red River (English)
                Forgotten Journey (English)
                Medicine Rock (English)
                Boundaries (English)
                Tule Creek (English)
                Jefferson's Plan (English)
                Instructions Compared (English)
                Equipping the Grand Excursion (English)
                A Caddo Indian Lodge - English
                Searching for Leadership (English)
                Trial Run - Dunbar and Hunter (English)
                Along the Middle Red River (English)
                Freeman and Sparks (English)
                A Friendly Letter from Freeman (English)
                A Naturalist (English)
                Louisiana Fox Squirrel (English)
                Spanish Misgivings (English)
                Secret Agent No. 13 (English)
                Spanish Reactions (English)
                Wild Horses (English)
                Destination Santa Fe (English)
                Santa Fe (English)
                Palo Duro Canyon (English)
                Great Raft, Great Swamp (English)
                Dr. John Sibley (English)
                The Great Raft (English)
                A Caddo Indian
                The Great Swamp (English)
                Meeting the Other (English)
                Spanish Bluff (English)
                Lost Expedition (English)
                Carolina Parakeets (English)
                Mississippi Kite (English Text)
                Short Run (English)
                Specimen, Veronica - English
                Specimen, Eustoma (English)
                Epilogue (English)
                North Fork of the Red (English Text)
                The Encore Expedition (Large)
                The Encore Expedition (Small)
                Forgotten Journey (Large)
                Forgotten Journey (Small)
                Boundaries (Large)
                Boundaries (Small)
                Jefferson's Plan (Large)
                Jefferson's Plan (small)
                Equipping The Grand Excursion (Large)
                Equipping (Small)
                Searching for Leadership (Large)
                Searching for Leadership (Small)
                Trial Run (Large)
                Trial Run (Small)
                Freeman and Sparks (Large)
                Freeman and Sparks (Small)
                A Naturalist (Large)
                A Naturalist (Small)
                Spanish Misgivings (Large)
                Spanish Misgivings (Small)
                Spanish Reactions (Large)
                Spanish Reactions (Small)
                Destination, Santa Fe (Large)
                Destination, Santa Fe (Small)
                The Great Raft and the Great Swamp (Large)
                The Great Raft and the Great Swamp (Small)
                Meeting The Other (Large)
                Meeting The Other (Small)
                Lost Expedition (Large)
                Lost Expedition (Small)
                Short Run (Large)
                Short Run (Small)
                Epilogue (Small)
                Epilogue (Large)
           In Spanish
                I. La Expedicion Encore (Spanish)
                Anthony Nau's Map of the Red River (Spanish)
                El Rio Red Real (Spanish)
                II. El viaje olvidado (Spanish)
                Roca Medicinal (Spanish)
                III. Limites (Spanish)
                El arroyo Tule (Spanish)
                IV. El plan de Jefferson (Spanish)
                Las Instrucciones de Jefferson (Spanish)
                Rama Norte del Rio Red (Spanish)
                V. Equipando
                Un Indio Caddo - Espagnol
                A Caddo Indian Lodge - Spanish
                VI. En busca de liderazgo (Spanish)
                VII. Ensayo de viaje (Spanish)
                Por la rama central del rio Red (Spanish)
                VIII. Freeman y Sparks (Spanish)
                Carta amistosa de Freeman (Spanish)
                IX. Naturalista (Spanish)
                La Ardilla Lobo en Louisiana (Spanish)
                X. Recelos espanoles (Spanish)
                Agente Secreto Numero 13 (Spanish)
                XI. Reacciones espanolas (Spanish)
                Catlin, Caballos salvajes (Spanish)
                XII. Destino - Santa Fe (Spanish)
                Santa Fe (Text)
                Canon Palo Duro (Spanish)
                XIII. La Gran Almadia y la Cienaga Grande (Spanish)
                El Dr. John Sibley (Spanish)
                La Gran Almadia (Spanish)
                En la Enorme Cienaga (Spanish)
                XIV. Encontrandose con el Otro
                Acantilado Espanol (Spanish)
                XV. La Expedicion Perdida (Spanish)
                Periquitos en Carolina (Spanish)
                XVI. Corto Recorrido (Spanish)
                Specimen, Veronica - Spanish
                Specimen, Eustoma - Spanish
                XVII. Epilogo (Spanish)
                The Encore Expedition (Spanish Large)
                The Encore Expedition (Spanish Small)
                El viaje olvidado (Spanish Large)
                El viaje olvidado (Spanish Small)
                Limites (Spanish Large)
                Limites (Spanish Small)
                El plan de Jefferson (Spanish Large)
                El plan de Jefferson (Small Spanish)
                Equipando (Spanish Large)
                Equipando (Spanish Small)
                En busca de liderazgo (Spanish Large)
                En busca de liderazgo (Spanish Small)
                Ensayo de viaje (Spanish Large)
                Ensayo de viaje (Spanish Small)
                Freeman y Sparks (Spanish Large)
                Freeman y Sparks (Spanish Small)
                Naturalista (Spanish Large)
                Naturalista (Spanish Small)
                Recelos espanoles (Spanish Large)
                Recelos espanoles (Spanish Small)
                Reacciones espanolas (Spanish Large)
                Reacciones espanolas (Spanish Small)
                Destino (Spanish Large)
                Destino (Spanish Small)
                La Gran Almadia y la Cienaga Grande (Spanish Large)
                La Gran Almadia y la Cienaga Grande (Spanish Small)
                Encontrondose con el otro (Spanish Large)
                Encontrondose con con el otro (Spanish Small)
                La Expedicion Perdida (Spanish Large)
                La Expedicion Perdida (Spanish Small)
                Corto Recorrido (Spanish Large)
                Corto Recorrido (Spanish Small)
                Epilogo (Spanish Large)
                Epilogo (Spanish Small)
      Highest National Importance
           At Every Hazard
           Drawing the Line
           U.S. 1803 Map
           Tempting Fate
      Louisiana Purchase
           Liberty's Rainbow
           Who was Albert Gallatin?
           Buying the Dream
           The Bottom Line
           So Vast a Land
           Boundaries
           Mapping the American Future
           American Leaders
           French Leaders
           Territory Timeline
           The Deal
           Official Document
           Page from Claims Convention
           Shape Shifting
                French Louisiana, 1682-1762
                Spanish Louisiana, 1762-1800
                French Louisiana, 1800-1803
                American Louisiana, 1803-1819
                Consolidation, 1819-1912
      Alexander Mackenzie
           From Canada, by Land
           Guidelines
           Echoes
           Mackenzie's Attitudes
           Observations
           Decisions
           Crossings
           Failures
      Thomas Jefferson
           Jefferson Still Survives
           Credentials
           Public Service
           Louisiana
           The Philosopher
           The Radical
           Contemporary
           The Virginian
           The Agrarian
      Peace Medals
           A Jefferson Peace Medal
           George Washington Season Medal
           A George III Peace Medal
           A Spanish Peace Medal
      Olin Wheeler on the Trail
           Rails to Wonderland
           Wheeler's Five Points
           Interpret, Amplify, Criticize
           Crossing the Bitterroots
           A Century on the Columbia
           Wonders on the Yellowstone
           Digressions and Conclusions

 
The Corps
      Haynes, Lewis Escapes Death
      Haynes, The Journal
      Sacagawea Meets Lewis and Clark
      Nathaniel Hale Pryor
      Pryor's Trick Shoulder
      Pryor Creek
      Meriwether Lewis
           Meriwether Lewis (1774-1809)
           Meriwether Lewis, Master Mason
           Three Pests and a Yoke
                Preludes
                Measures of Torment
                The Swelling and the Itch
                Songs and Superstitions
                Disagreeable Diptera
                American Originals
                Five Complaints
                Barbary Bullies
                Jefferson's War
                Lifting the Yoke
           Lewis's Three Wishes
                Three Wishes at the Great Falls of the Missouri
                Three Wishes
                Waterfall
                First Photo
                The Pen of Thomson
                Salvatore Rosa
                Camera Obscura - How it Worked
      The Character of Meriwether Lewis
           Part 1, Summer of 1809
           Part 2, Lewis's Last Journey
           Part 3, Derangement
           Part 4, On the Natchez Trace
           Part 5, Weighing Evidence
           Part 6, Suicide or Murder?
      William Clark
           William Clark (1770-1838)
           Clark's Education
           Close Call at the Falls
           Clark's Umbrella
                Umbrella - Signs and Symbols
                Come Rain or Come Shine - Manufacture of Umbrellas
                Crusoe's Umbrella
                A Matter of Melanins? - Why Clark Carried an Umbrella
      The Captains' Portraits
           Lewis Crashes!
           Consequences
           Peale's Portrait of Lewis
           Memin's Portrait of Lewis
           Lewis's Portraits Compared - Saint-Memin and Peale
           More Portraits of William Clark
           Memin's Portrait of William Clark
           Clark's Portraits Compared - Saint-Memin and Peale
           Discussion -- Memin's
           McKenzie on Lewis & Clark
      Enlisted Men and Engages
           Toussaint Charbonneau
           John Collins
           John Colter
           Colter the Mountain Man
           Pierre Cruzatte, Pilot of the Boats
           John Dame
           Joseph Field
           Reubin Field
           Robert Frazer
           Patrick Gass
           Thomas Proctor Howard
           John Ordway
           George Shannon
           Shannon - Disabled Vet
           John B. Thompson
           Ebenezer Tuttle
           Isaac White
           Alexander Hamilton Willard
           Richard Windsor
           Drouillard/Drewyer
                George Drouillard
                Drouillard After the Expedition
           Charles Floyd
                Charles Floyd, Much Lamented
                Hallowed ground
                Young man of much merit
      My Boy Pomp: About That Name
           A Beautiful Promising Child
           Delightful Prospects
           A Suitable Choice
           Little Dancing Boy
      The Faces of Sacagawea
           Plentywood, Montana
           Bismarck, North Dakota
           Bozeman, Montana
           Fort Benton, Montana
           Kansas City, Missouri
           Sacagawea, by Haynes
           Washington Park, Portland, Oregon
           Lewis and Clark College, Portland
           Sakakawea, by Bruno Zimm
           Scacagawea, by Mari Bolen
      Did they Pray?
           Church-goers
           Enlightened Faith
           Divine Providence
           High Stakes
           Charbonneau's Prayer
      Heroic Anniversary
           Coincidences
           Beethoven's Third Symphony
           Mahler's Beethoven
           Heroics
           Different Drummers
           Houdon's Bonaparte
           Two Fiddle Tunes
      Holidays
           Three Days Off
           At Camp Dubois, 1803
           Christmas at Fort Mandan, 1804
           That Sounden Horn
           Poem - The Boatman's Horn
           Christmas at Fort Clatsop
           . . . and a Song
           Independence Day
           The Boatman's Horn
           Boatmans' Horn Signals
      Military Profile of the Corps
           A Peacetime Army
           Republicanizing the Army
           Evaluating the Army's Officers
           Outfitting the Corps
           Schuylkill Arsenal to Wheeling
           Clark's Commission
           Medicine
           Survival Tools
                Introducing Michael Carrick
                Army Rifles of 1800
                Versatile Musket
                Clark's Small Rifle
                Trade Guns
                One for the Birds
                Thunder Gun
                Charbonneau's Fusee
                Artillery Piece
                Pocket Pistols
                Horse Pistols
                Officer's Sword
           Cryptology
                Jefferson's Cipher for Lewis
                Draft of Another Cipher for Lewis
                Jefferson's Wheel Cipher
           Captain Lewis's Air Gun
                The Greatest Consternation
                A Great Curiosity
                A Curious Piece of Workmanship
                Incomprehensible
                Animations
           Gills & Drams of Consolation
                Ardent Spirits on the Expedition
                Liquor Problems on the Expedition
                Why No Beer?
                Homeward Bound
           Espontoon
                Distinguishing Arm of an Officer
                Espontoon Before Lewis & Clark
                Espontoon on the Trail
           Northwest Reconnaissance
                Intelligence
                Useful Information
                Estimate of Eastern Indians
                Commodities
           A Day in the Life of a Soldier
                Routines
                Hour by Hour
           Articles of War
                Military Laws
                Courts Martial on the Trail
                Lewis's Fateful Misstep
                Corporal Punishment
           Baron von Steuben
                Baron von Steuben Arrives
                Steuben's Methods
                Captains and Sergeants
                Order of Encampment
                Guard Duty
      Music on the Trail
           A Sweet Musical Instrument
           Jefferson the Violinist
           Jefferson Plays
           Cruzatte’s Fiddle (High Quality)
           Cruzatte’s Fiddle (Low Quality)
           Cruzatte's Fiddlin'
           Fisher 's Hornpipe (High Quality)
           Fisher's Hornpipe (Low Quality)
           Cruzatte Plays
           Cruzatte Sings
           Last Dance
           That Tambereen
           Why Not . . . ?
           Talking of Singing
           Medicine Songs
           A Guy Thing
           Musical Diplomacy
           Did York Sing?
           Grateful Tunes
           The Human Element
           Rattle Riddle
           Song List
           Jews Harp
           Soldier's Joy
      Pomp's Bier
           Situation, Homonyms
           Confusion
           Shape and Sound
      Sacagawea's Story
           The Interpreter's Wife
           Her Own Work
           Back Home and Later Years
           Cameahwait, Sacagawea, and Jean Baptiste
      Uniforms
           Clark's Dress Uniform Coat
           Lewis's Dress Uniform
           Officer's Hat
           Officer in Action
           Enlisted Man's Dress Uniform
           Enlisted Man's Hat
           Fair Trade
           Those Colors
      Hunters and Hunting
           Quest for Hunters
           The Chase
           The American Way
           Frontier Trappers at Home
           School for Hunters
           Closest Call
           Woodsmanship
           Roll Call

 
Geography
      Beaverhead Rock
      Clark's Point of View
      Imagining the Northwest
      A Map for the Explorers
      How Long Is a River?
      Nicholas King Map (1803), Detail
      Northern Lights
           Northern Lights - Shapes Various
           Northern Lights - Convulsions
           Northern Lights - Little Ice Age
           Northern Lights - Current Understanding
           Northern Lights - Ominous or Not?
      Mapping Unknown Lands
           The Unknown Lands
           How Do We All Get Around?
           Indian Spatial Concepts
           Formal Navigation by Lewis & Clark
           Sextant
           Octant
           Those Cryptic Journal Entries
           Compass Bearing - Azimuth
           Surveyor Compass
           Declination
           The Chronometer
           Estimating Distances
           Careful Observations
           Measurement Errors
           Longitude and Time
           Recognition
           New Northwest
           Nicholas King's Map, 1803
      Mystery in the Mountains
           Unaccountable Artillery
           For the Philosopher
           Moodus Noises
           Brontides
           Thunderclappers

 
Issues & Values
      Shades of Meaning
           Defining 'Discover'
           Defining 'Savage'
           Defining 'Squaw'
      River of Promise
           Announcement: River of Promise
           Foreword by Clay Jenkinson (excerpt)
           The Solitary Hero (1)
           The Solitary Hero (2)
           The Solitary Hero (3)
           The Solitary Hero (4)
      Lewis & Clark in Literature
           First Accounts
           Naturalists: Wilson and Audubon
           Irving, Cooper and Poe
           Children's Literature
      Metaphors for an Epic
           Dubious Legacies
           Corn Mills and Canadians
           Markets and Mandans
           Two Views of Warfare
           Six Metaphors for the Legacy

 
Native Nations
      Trail of Tears
      Blackbird Hill, Nebraska
      Mandan Lodge
      Name Calling
      Fort Mandan Winter
      Osage Indians
      Passing the Hats
      Unpacking Jefferson's Indian Hall
      Clark's Nez Perce Son
           1. The Walking Out People
           2. Prophecies
           3. Watkuese
           4. Now is the time
           5. Suspicion
           6. Personal Connection
           7. K'useyneiskit
           8. Ties that Bind
           9. Book of Heaven
           10. Memorial
           11. Promises
           12. Boiling Point
           13. Great Victory!
           14. Flight
           15. Familiar Road
           16. Sanctuary
           17. Defeat and Exile
           18. Misnomers
      Meeting the Salish
           Meeting the Salish at Ross Hole
           Charlie Russell Paints the Meeting
           Questions and Answers
           Victor's Widow's Story
           Ochanee's Story
           Sophie Moiese's Story
           Charlo's Story
           Trapper Peak
      Mandan, Hidatsa & Arikara
           Invocation
           Treaties
           Bulls Eye's Story
           Sakakawea's Death
           Tex Hall, Tribal Chair
           Tex Hall (Transcript)
           Tex Hall (Low Quality)
           Tex Hall (High Quality)
           Edwin Benson, Language Teacher
           Edwin Benson (Transcript)
           Edwin Benson (Low Quality)
           Edwin Benson (High Quality)
           Hazel Blake, Creation Story
           Hazel Blake (Transcript)
           Hazel Blake (Low Quality)
           Hazel Blake (High Quality)
           Arline Charging, Making Corn Balls
           Arlene Charging (Transcript)
           Arlene Charging (Low Quality)
           Arlene Charging (High Quality)
           Mary Elk, Quilts and Beads
           Mary Elk (Transcript)
           Mary Elk (Low Quality)
           Mary Elk (High Quality)
           Dennis Fox
           Dennis Fox (Transcript)
           Dennis Fox (Low Quality)
           Dennis Fox (High Quality)
           Jim Wolf, Businessman
           Jim Wolf (Transcript)
           Jim Wolf (Low Quality)
           Jim Wolf (High Quality)
           Monica Mayer
           Monica Mayer (Transcript)
           Monica Mayer (Low Quality)
           Monica Mayer (High Quality)
           Tom Bird Bear
           Tom Bird Bear (Transcript)
           Tom Bird Bear (small)
           Tom Bird Bear (big)
           Calvin Grinnell
           Calvin Grinnell (Transcript)
           Calvin Grinnel (Low Quality)
           Calvin Grinnel (High Quality)
           Our Land Our Home
                Hidatsa Territory About 1800
                Fort Berthold Reservation, 1851
                Fort Berthold Reservation, 1870
                Fort Berthold Reservation, 1880
                Fort Berthold Reservation, 1891
                Fort Berthold Reservation, 1910
                Fort Berthold Reservation in 1950
                Fort Berthold Reservation in 1960
      One Flathead's Perspective
           Passing Through--Transcript
           Troublesome Trade--Transcript
           Life Cycle--Transcript
           The Difference--Transcript
           The Power--Transcript
      Bear Claw Necklace
           Awakening the Bear
           History - the Necklace
           Object and Artifact
           Form and Cultural Identity
           Among the Bear Men

 
Natural History
      Birds
           Two Eagles
           Clark's Nutcracker - Nucifraga columbiana
                Clark's Nutcracker
                Wilson - Clark's Crow
                For Better or Worse
           Lewis's Woodpecker - Melanerpes lewis
                Lewis's Woodpecker
                Bridge of Wings
           Meadowlarks - Eastern and Western
      Fish
           Salmon
                Chinook Salmon
                Sockeye Salmon
                Coho Salmon
                Salmon Trout
           Salmon - The Spirit
                Salmon: Spirit and Sustenance
                Hatcheries & Mitigation
      Insects
      Mammals - Large
           The Whale
           Pronghorn Antelope
           American Bison - Bos bison
                Bison in the Journals
                     Bison - Map
                     First Sign
                     First Kill
                     500 Buffalow
                     Immence Herds
                     Boundless Pasture
                     All in an Uproar
                     A Buffalo Jump
                     With Verdure Clad
                     Indian Style
                     Bones of the Buffaloe
                     Buffalo Road
                     Much Rejoiced
                     One Continual Roar
                     Bygone Days
                     20,000 Bison
                     Bison Along the Trail
                Bison in Decline
                     Preface
                     1. An American Serengeti
                     2. A Peaceable Kingdom
                     3. Food for Thought
                     4. Change in the Weather
                     5. Competitors
                     6. Diseases
                     7. Victims of the Marketplace
                     8. Conspiracy
                     9. The Evidence
                Bison as Icon
                     Buffalo or Bison?
                     Bison in Decline
                     Numbers
                     Bison Herd
                     Mind Reading
                     Two Bison
                     A Richer Tapestry
                     Bull Bison Photo
                     Bison Recovery
                     Bison Recovery - Continued
                     The New Bison
                     Two Bulls
                     A Political Animal
                     Salvation
                     Indian Commissary
                     Transitions
                     Hi-Tech Pharmacy
                     Charbonneau's Recipe
                     An Anthem
                Images of the Icon
                     Big Medicine
                     Fourth Annual Great Easter Buffalo Kite Festival
                     Independence Day on the Reservation
                     Two Buffalo Bulls Fighting
                     Herd of Bison near Lake Jesse
                     Death Battle of Buffalo and Grizzly Bear
                     Buffalo Hunt No. 26
           Bighorn Sheep
                Bighorn Sheep -- Discoveries
                Bighorns in the Breaks
                The Other Sheep; Godman & Audubon
                Getting the Picture
           Lewis and Clark - Three Deer
                System, Model & Legacy
                The Other Fallow
                Common Virginia Deer
                Audubon - Common Deer
                Say's Mule Deer
                Lewis's Black-tailed Deer
                Western Whitetail
                Another Curious Deer
           Grizzly Bear - Ursus arctos horribilis
                Grizzly Bears, Main Menu
                Grizzlies - May 15, 1806
                Image - Mom and Cub
                Profiles
                     Lurid Details
                     A Sloth of Bears
                     Sense of Life
                     Bison Banquet
                     Sense of Life - Continued
                     Never Look a Grizzly in the Eye
                     Grizzly Gastronomy
                     Everyday Bears
                     Biblical Bears
                     The Scientific Bear
                     Three (White) Bears
                     Nitakyaio
                Journals
                     Verry Large
                     Gentlemen!
                     Standoff
                     Formidable Account
                     A Tremendious Looking Anamal
                     Curiossity Satisfied
                     Narrow Escape
                     Gratifyed
                     A Frolick?
                     Treed!
                     Large Vicious Species
                     Mistaken Identity
                Insights
                     I. Attitudes
                     II. Survival
                     Attitudes
                     Survival
                     III. The Bears' Pantry
                     The Bears' Pantry
                     IV. Management
                     Management
                     Behavior
                     V. Behavior
                     Bitterroot Background
                     VI. Bears in the Bitterroots
                     Reintroduction
                     The Company They Keep
                     The Big Picture
                          Grizzly Graph
                          Room to Roam
                          Disappearing Grizzlies
                          Brink of Extinction
                          Diminishing Habitat
                          New Needs
                          Dim Future
                          The Killing Years
                          The Action Years
                          Doomsday
                          No more grizzlies?
                          Crash?
                          Price Hike
                Recovery
                     Lewis's Conclusions
                     Griz in the 'Roots
                     Map of the Bitterroot Mountains, 1854
                     Grizzly Pelts
                     Recovery Plan
                     Bitterroot Ecosystem Map
                Griz Quiz
                     Griz Quiz
                Grizzly Gallery
                     Dolack, Great Bear
                     Erickson, Blonde Bear and Mother
                     Russell, The Bluffers
                     Russell, Loops and Swift Horses Are Surer than Lead
                     Russell, Price of His Hide
      Mammals - Small
           Domestic Dogs
           The Many-Storied Hare
           Prairie Dog Town
           Bobcat - Lynx rufus
           Mystery Mammal
                A Gluttony of Wolverines
                Tyger Cat, or Fox?
                An Amble of Badgers
                Face-Off
                The Burrowing Dog of the Prarie
           A Sagacity of Newfoundlands
                Smarts and Scents
                Biggest Dog
                Faithful Friend
      Plants
           Luxuriant Beargrass
           Lewis's Specimen - Beargrass
           Wild Ginger
           Clarkia - Clarkia pulchella
                A Singular Plant
                Lewis's Specimen - Clarkia
                Pursh's painting of 'Clarkia pulchella'
           Convergence: David Douglas, . . .
                Philadelphia, 1823 and 1804
                Coming to the Northwest, 1825
                Expanding the Story
                London, 1828-29
                A New Set of Skills
                The Geographer
           Lewisia Rediviva
                Raceme amer
                Bitter Tears
                Home Ground
                Spetlem
                Lewis's Specimen of Bitterroot
      Reptiles
           'Twixt Plated Decks
           Rattlesnakes - Crotalus viridus viridus
                A Rhumba of Rattlesnakes
                Rattlesnake Rattle
                Latet anguis in herba!
                Legends
                Rattlesnake Bite
      Trees and Shrubs
           Rafinesque's Six Firs of Oregon
           Western Redcedar
           Yucca - Yucca glauca
           Cottonwoods - 3 Species
                Cottonwoods, Part One
                Populus balsamifera
                Black Cottonwood Trees
                Two Reasons
                Cottonwood Trees at Travelers' Rest
                Cottonwoods on the Missouri River
                Historic Cottonwood Trees
                Cottonwood Fruit
                Cottonwood Seeds
                Cottonwoods on the Banks of Lolo Creek
                Collateral Cost
                Senior Citizen
           Douglas-Fir - A Nomenclatural Morass
                Menzies, Lambert and Poiret
                Lewis, Clark and Pursh
                Rafinesque and Douglas
                Don, Sabine and Others